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There are numerous legal aspects of the film business which must be addressed in order to ensure a smooth and successful production. Intellectual property rights, contract terms, financing, and compensation are among the key issues of the legal frameworks essential for filmmakers. Our experienced Maryland and DC film attorneys can provide invaluable guidance and support throughout the filmmaking process, utilizing our expertise and contacts to your advantage.

Maryland DC Film Attorneys

Experienced film attorneys are vital in successfully addressing the important legal profit-determinative aspects of the film business. Our Maryland and DC entertainment lawyers can provide expertise in drafting and negotiating contracts, securing intellectual property rights, and ensuring compliance with laws and regulations.

By engaging experienced legal counsel, filmmakers can mitigate legal risks, protect their creative works, and increase the chances of a successful film production.

Maryland DC Film Attorneys

Attaching Talent

Interim Casting Agreements

Securing an interim agreement has become a critical step for producers. Interim agreements are now required by SAG-AFTRA to send scripts to talent. Therefore, without an interim agreement, producers are unable to begin the most important initial task in getting a production going – attaching talent. An experienced entertainment lawyer can assist you in navigating the complicated process of obtaining an interim agreement.


Due to the strike between SAG-AFTRA (the Screen Actors Guild‐American Federation of Television and Radio Artists) and AMPTP (the Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers), which SAG-AFTRA launched against the Hollywood studios on July 14, 2023, television and film production has been largely halted due to producers’ inability to cast members of SAG-AFTRA in the absence of a waiver.


SAG-AFTRA launched its interim agreements program on July 27th, which creates a path to filming with union talent for independent productions with no direct ties to members of AMPTP as well as WGA projects shot in the US. These agreements are considered to be waivers, which allow agents to send scripts to actors for consideration. 


This allows producers to attach talent to their projects and move them forward to financing with confidence as the guild has stated that actors, “may work on these productions without being in violation of the strike order.”


In addition, the agreements are intended to allow guild actors to “audition and/or engage in negotiations regarding casting for these productions”, however actors may not, “travel, rehearse, or otherwise begin rendering services for the production.” 


Producers may also secure other agreements with SAG-AFTRA which allow them to promote the projects at film festivals and the guild has also made it clear that the interim agreement requirements also apply to distributors seeking to acquire films at festivals that are under interim agreements.


In order to obtain an interim agreement, producers must apply for and gain signatory status. This process was previously handled at the end of the development phase of production but is now the initial step. The signatory application requires that each project be registered as a standalone such as an LLC, in addition to requiring specific information, such as, cast, crew, budget, financing, investor identities, and film schedule details.


SAG-AFTRA has recognized the difficulty this can present for independent producers as the process used to involve casting prior to securing financing. According to a SAG-AFTRA spokesperson, “[i]n some cases, in order to facilitate casting, the full signatory process may not be completed prior to receiving an Interim Agreement for casting purposes only. The signatory process is completed later before the project is officially cleared for members to work.  We are aware of requests from projects that are in earlier stages and we are evaluating options for those projects.”

qualified entertainment attorney can help you work through the signatory and interim agreement application process to ensure a strong chance of success.

Starting A Production Company

Selecting the right business entity for the film is another crucial aspect step in developing a film. Whether it is a short film or a feature-length production, setting up a proper business entity is necessary for organization as well as minimizing liability.


It is important to separate the profits and expenses associated with a film from other revenues and financial obligations of other films or other businesses in which a producer may be involved. This helps protect the filmmakers' assets. The same applies to separating personal funds and accounts from the film in order to limit the exposure of personal assets by separating them from the liabilities associated with the film production. 


Today, many producers choose to form limited liability companies (LLCs). The LLC is a business form created for the purposes of enjoying both the benefits of corporate formation and limited personal liability. An LLC is typically an ideal business structure to achieve the goals outlined above, such as protection of personal assets in the event of a bankruptcy associated with a film. It is important that production companies maintain adequate legal compliance to enjoy the benefits of limited liability.


In Maryland, limited liability status requirements may include adequate capitalization, business banking, and other business formalities such as board meetings, member meetings, and resolutions. A competent entertainment business attorney can help you make the right decisions when forming a production company, in addition to assuring legal compliance on your behalf.

Maryland DC Film Lawyers


IRS Tax Code Section 181

In addition to attaching talent for a film, producers must often secure financing for the film in order to bring it to life. The methods for sourcing capital include studio backing, private investors, and production companies who specialize in financing and producing projects for distribution through major distributors.


The film financing process can be complicated, as the order of operation is not clearly defined. Financing may be the key to casting and distribution or casting and distribution guarantees may be the key to securing financing. In this discussion, we will look at some of the most reliable financing methods for producers, which an experienced film financing lawyer can help you pursue.

Who § 181 Works For

§ 181 of the IRS Code is an interesting investment vehicle, which provides a valuable opportunity for filmmakers and investors to benefit from tax breaks and deductions when setting up a film fund. This section allows taxpayers to elect to treat the cost of qualified film and television productions as expenses.


By doing so, investors can reduce their taxable income and potentially increase their return on investment. Therefore, § 181 funds are often seen as convenient tax shelters for wealthy individuals seeking to reduce their tax liability.


Forming A § 181 Fund


The first step in setting up a § 181 film fund is establishing the fund’s legal structure. This may involve forming a limited partnership, a limited liability company (LLC), or another suitable entity. The choice of entity will depend on various factors, including the number of investors, liability considerations, and management structure.

Once the fund structure is established, lawyers will draft the necessary fund documents, such as the partnership agreement, articles of operations for corporations, or operating agreement for an LLC. These documents outline the rights and responsibilities of the fund's investors and managers, as well as the investment objectives and strategies of the fund, in addition to the manner in which the fund must operate. A Maryland entertainment business lawyer can help ensure compliance with the relevant regulations and to protect the interests of the fund and its investors.

Raising Capital

Once the fund has been formed, the next step is to raise capital from investors. The fund managers will typically engage in an active fundraising process, reaching out to potential investors who are interested in investing in film projects. The fund managers will present the investment opportunity, highlighting the potential tax benefits and other advantages of investing in the fund.

It is important to hire a competent entertainment attorney to review the investor agreements and ensure compliance with securities laws and regulations to protect the interests of the fund and its investors from civil or criminal liability or financial losses.


Compliance and Diligence


When setting up a film fund under IRS Code section 181, competent film financing lawyers will address several legal compliance concerns, including tax regulations, securities laws, and contract negotiations. These concerns are crucial for establishing the fund as well as approving funds to be used for acquisition and production of films under the fund.


Due diligence is one of the key legal concerns that a Maryland film lawyer will address in developing a § 181 fund. Due diligence inquiries involve a comprehensive investigation and analysis of the potential risks and benefits associated with a particular investment.


In the context of a film fund, film financing attorneys will conduct will work to ensure that the films selected for investment align with the objectives and criteria set forth in the fund. This includes examining the track record of the filmmakers, their past successes or failures, the financial viability of the projects, any accounting to date, the source of any funds already pledged to the fund or already expensed, and the contributions and backgrounds of all producers.


Investment Agreements

Drafting and negotiation of investment agreements is another important concern for § 181 funds. These agreements set out the terms and conditions under which the fund will invest in a particular film project, such as the amount of investment, the expected returns, investment priority, the allocation of risks and profits, and the rights and obligations of the parties involved, including credit and other considerations. It is critical to engage experienced entertainment lawyers to carefully review these agreements to ensure that they adequately protect the interests of the fund and its investors.


Intellectual property rights are also a critical consideration when approving funds to be used for films under a § 181 fund. Credible film attorneys will ensure that the necessary agreements are in place to secure the rights to the script, music, trademarks, and other intellectual property associated with the film, including name and likeness rights and copyright.


Acquiring Films

The process of acquiring and clearing the film includes drafting and negotiating licensing agreements, distribution agreements, and rights acquisition agreements to protect the intellectual property assets of the fund and its investors. Through conducting due diligence, drafting investment agreements, and securing intellectual property rights, competent entertaintment lawyers ensure that the fund operates in a legally sound and profitable manner, therefore contributing to the success of the § 181 film fund and the protection of the interests of all parties involved.

It is wise to retain a Maryland film lawyer as representation plays a vital role in successfully setting up a § 181 fund, as well as limiting exposure to harsh civil and criminal penalties imposed by the IRS.

DMV Film Attorneys


Minimum Guarantee


When it comes to financing agreements in the film industry, minimum guarantee financing agreements play a crucial role in creating paths to production for independent, established production companies, and studios. These agreements not only provide a financial safety net for producers and production companies; they also offer several legal benefits. In order to navigate these complex agreements and ensure their best interests are protected, it is highly beneficial for producers and production companies to hire an experienced entertainment lawyer.




Firstly, let's delve into the legal importance of minimum guarantee financing agreements. These agreements are legally binding contracts between the financing entity, typically a studio or distributor, and the producer or production company. By entering into a minimum guarantee agreement, producers gain the benefit of a bankable agreement, which may be used to access capital from banks or private lenders due to the studio or distributor’s commitment to pay for the film. Minimum guarantee financing agreements outline the terms and conditions under which the buyer will accept delivery of the film and make payment, including the minimum amount guaranteed to the producer, the production quality, and experience level of producers and crew. This minimum guarantee ensures a certain level of revenue for the production, mitigating the financial risks associated with the project. A Maryland or DC film attorney can help you negotiate a favorable minimum guarantee financing agreement.




Another legal benefit of minimum guarantee financing agreements is that they provide a clear framework for the distribution and exploitation of the film. The agreement specifies the territories in which the film will be distributed in exchange for the financing, the mediums through which it will be released, and the time frame of distribution. This clarity helps to avoid any potential disputes or misunderstandings between the parties involved. Furthermore, a minimum guarantee that is limited to one territory, such as the United States, may be supplemented by additional distribution and licensing agreements for other territories, such as, Canada, the United Kingdom, Mexico, Germany, Japan, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and other countries, thus allowing producers to increase the guaranteed financial returns of a film. A qualified entertainment lawyer can help producers negotiate distribution and licensing agreements in multiple territories to increase the value of a film.




Additionally, minimum guarantee financing agreements often include important provisions related to intellectual property rights and copyright ownership. These provisions ensure that the producer or production company retains the necessary rights to exploit and monetize the film. Without such agreements, there could be a risk of unauthorized distribution or infringement of intellectual property rights, which could have significant legal and financial consequences. It is important to retain an experienced entertainment attorney to ensure you understand the length and location of the rights you are you are selling.




Furthermore, these agreements typically address the issue of recoupment and profit sharing. Recoupment is the repayment of advanced financing. Therefore, minimum guarantee financing agreements outline the distribution and allocation of revenues generated by the exploitation of the film, ensuring that the producer or production company receives their fair share of the profits in a timely manner. This protects their financial interests and provides a legal framework for revenue distribution as well as audits. It is wise to hire a competent film lawyer to negotiate the necessary payment and oversight producers deserve.


Legal representation plays a crucial role in protecting the interests of producers and production companies in minimum guarantee financing agreements. These agreements, which involve a financial commitment from distributors or investors to provide a guaranteed minimum payment to the producer, require careful negotiation and documentation. By hiring a qualified entertainment attorney, producers and production companies can ensure their rights and assets are fully protected throughout the process.

Hire A Maryland or DC Film Attorney

The above article provides an overview of some of the major legal issues involved in the entertainment business, with a focus on the film industry. It is not legal advice. It is critical to consult an entertainment attorney if you are developing a project and or contacting talent, agencies, studios, networks, or other buyers and distributors.



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